by Michael Cadwell
Foreword by Nader Tehrani
RIBA Finalist for Book of the Year, 2007
Confronted with the intricate construction details of Carlo Scarpa's Querini Stampalia Gallery – steel joined at odd intervals, concrete spilled out of concatenated forms, stone cut in labyrinthine pattern – Michael Cadwell abandoned his attempts to categorize them theoretically and resolved instead to appreciate their idiosyncrasies and evoke their all-embracing affects. What he had dismissed as a collection of fetishes he came to understand as a coherently constructed world that was nonetheless persistently strange. In Strange Details, Cadwell looks at the work of four canonical architects who "made strange" with the most resistant aspect of architecture – construction. In buildings that were pivotal in their careers, Scarpa, Frank Lloyd Wright, Mies van der Rohe, and Louis Kahn all created details that undercut our critical and analytical terra firma. Cadwell explores the strangeness of Scarpa's Querini Stampalia, the wood light-frame construction of Wright's Jacobs House, the welded steel frame of Mies's Farnsworth House, and the reinforced concrete of Kahn's Yale Center for British Art. Each architect, he finds, reconfigures the rudimentary facts of construction, creating a subtle but undeniable shift in a building’s physicality. And for each of them, nature is strange, and its strangeness infects; nature unmoors exhausted cultural ideas, constricted analytical procedures, and outmoded production techniques. An awakening to nature's strangeness forces a new sense of the world, one that we can detect in these architects' configurations of the world's materials – their strange details.
Essay on Artificial Intelligence and its Uses
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Artificial Intelligence and its Uses
Artificial intelligence is defined as the ability of a machine to think for itself. Scientists and theorists continue to debate if computers will actually be able to think for themselves at one point. The generally accepted theory is that computers do and will think more in the future. AI has grown rapidly in the last ten years because of the advances in computer architecture. As AI advances, human beings are using it to help with some problems that use AI.
AI is achieved using a number of different methods. The more popular methods are neural networks, fuzzy logic, and expert systems. There are very few applications that are pre-written using AI. Each company has to write its…show more content…
In Los Angeles, a fuzzy logic system is used to check input from several cameras located at different intersections. This system provides a "smart light" that can decide whether a traffic light should be changed more often or remain green longer. In order for these "smart lights" to work, the system assigns a value to an input and checks all the inputs at once. Those inputs that have the highest value get the highest amount of attention. Another example is how a fuzzy logic system might evaluate water temperature. If the water is cold, it assigns a value of zero. If it is hot the system will assign the value of one. But if the next sample is lukewarm, it has the capability to decide upon a value of 0.6. The different degrees of warmness or coldness are shown through the values assigned to it. Hitachi and Matsushita are starting to manufacture washing machines that automatically adjust for load size and how dirty the clothes are. These machines wash until clothes are clean, not just for ten minutes. Matsushita also manufactures vacuum cleaners that adjust the suction power according to the volume of dust and the dirtiness of the floor. Fuzzy logic's structure allows it to easily rate any input and decide upon the importance.
Expert systems have proven effective in a number of problem areas that usually require human intelligence. Expert systems are primarily used as specialized problem solvers.