Critical Thinking Ethical Theories In Medicine

1. Jonsen AR, Siegler M, Winslade WJ. Clinical Ethics. 4th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 1998.

2. Siegler M. Decision-making strategy for clinical-ethical problems in medicine. Arch Intern Med. 1982;142:2178–9.[PubMed]

3. Thomasma DC. Training in medical ethics:an ethical workup. Forum Med. 1978;1:33–6.[PubMed]

4. Doukas DJ. The design and use of the bioethics consultation form. Theor Med. 1992;13:5–14.[PubMed]

5. Gillon R. Medical ethics:four principles plus attention to scope. BMJ. 1994;309:184–8.[PMC free article][PubMed]

6. McCullough LB. Addressing ethical dilemmas:an ethics work-up. New Physician. 1984;33:34–5.

7. Finnerty JJ, Pinkerton JV, Moreno J, Ferguson JE. Ethical theory and principles:do they have any relevance to problems arising in everyday practice? Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2000;183:301–8.[PubMed]

8. Lo B. Resolving Ethical Dilemmas: A Guide for Clinicians. 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2000. pp. 7–10.

9. Miller FG, Fletcher JC, Fins JJ. Clinical pragmatism:a case method of moral problem solving. In: Fletcher JC, Lombardo PA, Marshall MF, Miller FG, editors. Introduction to Clinical Ethics. 2nd ed. Frederick, MD: University Publishing Group; 1997. pp. 21–38.

10. British Medical Association. Ethics Today: The BMA's Handbook on Ethics and Law. 2nd ed. London: BMJ Publishing Group; 2004. pp. 6–12.

11. Kelly SE, Marshall PA, Sanders LM, Raffin TA, Koenig BA. Understanding the practice of ethics consultation:results of an ethnographic multi-site study. J Clin Ethics. 1997;8:136–49.[PubMed]

12. DuVal G, Sartorius L, Clarridge B, Gensler G, Danis M. What triggers requests for ethics consultations? J Med Ethics. 2001;27(suppl I):i24–i29.[PMC free article][PubMed]

13. Fetters MD, Brody H. The epidemiology of bioethics. J Clin Ethics. 1999;10:107–15.[PubMed]

14. Brody BA. Life and Death Decision Making. New York, NY: Oxford University Press; 1988. pp. 9–11.

15. Beauchamp TL, Childress JF. Principles of Biomedical Ethics. 5th ed. New York, NY: Oxford University Press; 2001.

16. Pellegrino ED. The metamorphosis of medical ethics:a 30-year retrospective. JAMA. 1993;269:1158–62.[PubMed]

17. Nagel T. The fragmentation of value. In: Engelhardt HT, Callahan D, editors. Knowledge, Value and Belief. Hastings-on-Hudson, NY: Institute of Society, Ethics and the Life Sciences; 1977. pp. 279–94.

18. Tulsky JA, Chesney MA, Lo B. How do medical residents discuss resuscitation with patients? J Gen Intern Med. 1995;10:436–42.[PubMed]

19. Tulsky JA, Fischer GS, Rose MR, Arnold RM. Opening the black box:how do physicians communicate about advance directives? Ann Intern Med. 1998;129:441–9.[PubMed]

20. von Gunten CF, Ferris FD, Emanuel LL. Ensuring competency in end-of-life care:communication and relational skills. JAMA. 2000;284:3051–7.[PubMed]

21. Goold SD, Williams B, Arnold RM. Conflicts regarding decisions to limit treatment:a differential diagnosis. JAMA. 2000;283:909–14.[PubMed]

22. Pellegrino ED. The internal morality of clinical medicine:a paradigm for the ethics of the helping and healing professions. J Med Philos. 2001;26:559–79.[PubMed]

23. Siegler M, Pellegrino ED, Singer PA. Clinical medical ethics. J Clin Ethics. 1990;1:5–9.[PubMed]

24. Forrow L, Arnold RM, Frader J. Teaching clinical ethics in the residency years: preparing competent professionals. J Med Philos. 1991;16:93–112.[PubMed]

25. Jones AH. Literature and medicine:narrative ethics. Lancet. 1997;349:1243–6.[PubMed]

26. Charon R. Narrative medicine:a model for empathy, reflection, profession, and trust. JAMA. 2001;286:1897–902.[PubMed]

27. DuBose ER, Hamel R, O'Connell LJ, editors. A Matter of Principles? Ferment in U.S. Bioethics. Valley Forge, PA: Trinity Press International; 1994.

28. Callahan D. Ethics without abstraction:squaring the circle. J Med Ethics. 1996;22:69–71.[PMC free article][PubMed]

29. Weir RF. Abating Treatment with Critically Ill Patients: Ethical and Legal Limits to the Medical Prolongation of Life. New York, NY: Oxford University Press; 1989. pp. 349–54.

30. Farley MA. Compassionate Respect: A Feminist Approach to Medical Ethics and Other Questions. New York, NY: Paulist Press; 2002.

31. Schneider CE. The practice of autonomy and the practice of bioethics. J Clin Ethics. 2002;13:72–7.[PubMed]

32. Outka G. Social justice and equal access to health care. J Rel Ethics. 1974;2:11–32.[PubMed]

33. Freeden M. Rights. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press; 1991.

34. Smart JJC, Williams B. Utilitarianism: For and Against. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press; 1982.

35. Jonsen AR, Toulmin S. The Abuse of Casuistry: A History of Moral Reasoning. Berkeley: University of California Press; 1988.

36. AMA Council on Ethical and Judicial Affairs. Code of Medical Ethics: Current Opinions with Annotations. Chicago, IL: American Medical Association; 1998; Available at: “ http://www.ama-assn.org/ama/pub/category/2498.html”. Accessed January 6, 2005.

37. Ethics manual. Fourth edition. American College of Physicians. Ann Intern Med. 1998;128:576–94. Available at: http://www.acponline.org/ethics/ethics_man.htm. Accessed January 6, 2005.

38. Thomasma DC. Beyond medical paternalism and patient autonomy: a model of physician conscience for the physician-patient relationship. Ann Intern Med. 1983;98:243–8.[PubMed]

39. Wardle LD. Protecting the rights of conscience of health care providers. J Legal Med. 1993;14:177–230.[PubMed]

40. Perkins HS. Teaching medical ethics during residency. Acad Med. 1989;64:262–6.[PubMed]

41. Culver CM, Clouser KD, Gert B, et al. Basic curricular goals in medical ethics. N Engl J Med. 1985;312:253–6.[PubMed]

42. Miles SH, Lane LW, Bickel J, Walker RM, Cassel CK. Medical ethics education:coming of age. Acad Med. 1989;64:705–14.[PubMed]

43. Fox E, Arnold RM, Brody B. Medical ethics education:past, present, and future. Acad Med. 1995;70:761–9.[PubMed]

44. Barnard D. Residency ethics teaching:a critique of current trends. Arch Intern Med. 1988;148:1836–8.[PubMed]

45. Jacobson JA, Tolle SW, Stocking C, Siegler M. Internal medicine residents' preferences regarding medical ethics education. Acad Med. 1989;64:760–4.[PubMed]

46. Pellegrino ED, Siegler M, Singer PA. Teaching clinical ethics. J Clin Ethics. 1990;1:175–80.[PubMed]

47. Gillon R. Thinking about a medical school core curriculum for medical ethics and law. J Med Ethics. 1996;22:323–4.[PMC free article][PubMed]

48. Brody H. Transparency: informed consent in primary care. Hastings Cent Rep. 1989;19:5–9.[PubMed]

MEDICAL ETHICS  Written Assignments 

OBSERVE THE DUE DATES!!   Check on due dates:  Calendar

Click on the module title below for the assignment for that module.

INSTRUCTIONS for PREPARING and SUBMITTING WRITTEN ASSIGNMENTS

MODULE  0 ORIENTATION

MODULE 1 INTRODUCTION TO THE COURSE

MODULE 2 ETHICS

MODULE 3 THE MORAL CLIMATE OF HEALTH CARE

MODULE 4 PROFESSIONALISM ELITISM AND HEALTH CARE

MODULE 5 ETHICS AND NURSING

MODULE 6 RIGHTS TRUTH AND CONSENT

MODULE 7 HUMAN EXPERIMENTATION

MODULE 8 ABORTION

MODULE : MID COURSE EVALUATIONS AND CHANGES

MODULE 9 SEVERELY IMPAIRED NEWBORNS, FUTILITY AND INFANTICIDE

MODULE 10 CARE OF THE DYING

MODULE 11  DELIBERATE TERMINATION OF LIFE AND PHYSICIAN ASSISTED SUICIDE

MODULE 12 REPRODUCTION , ASSISTANCE AND CONTROL

MODULE 13 ALLOCATION OF RESOURCES: SCARCITY AND TRIAGE

MODULE 14 A CLAIM OF A RIGHT TO HEALTH CARE

MODULE : CULMINATING ACTIVITY: BONUS EXERCISE

INSTRUCTIONS FOR PREPARING AND SUBMITTING : CASE STUDIES

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MODULE  0 ORIENTATION
ASSIGNMENTS: ORIENTATION WEEK

For this first module you are expected to COMPLETE ALL the TEN STEPS TO START OFF

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Written Assignment for MODULE 1 INTRODUCTION TO THE COURSE

Please answer each of the questions below.

1. Why is it necessary for anyone to care about ethics?

2. Of what value would knowledge of the principles of ethics be to people confronted with moral problems or dilemmas?

3. How is a person any better off knowing about Biomedical Ethics when confronting moral problems ?

4. Why do you think that you have anything to gain beyond the credits for taking this course and coming to understand the issues and principles related to Ethics and Biomedical Ethics in particular?

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Written Assignment for MODULE 2 ETHICS

1. Reading Comprehension

A. Relativism

  • Distinguish Descriptive Ethical Relativism from Normative Ethical Relativism (NER).
  • How do people come to believe and act on normative ethical relativism (NER) ?
  • State three objections to the theory of normative ethical relativism (NER), i.e., three criticisms or weaknesses.  How has NER been disproven?
  • Why is NER not useful as an ethical theory?

B. Ethical Traditions  For EACH of the following 5 theories :

  

consequential

non-consequential

A)  Ethical Egoism C)  Natural Law Theory
B)  Rule Utility D)  Kant
 E)  Rawls
  • Describe the basic principle: What is the concept of the "GOOD" involved with each?
  • What is the major strength and three (3) weaknesses in each theory?

2. Critical Thinking

What makes any act morally good?  Since no human action is seen encountered by the sense as having a label as to its moral status what is the source or how is it that actions are thought to be morally good or immoral?  This is asking you to think carefully and to think about what underlies every moral judgment people make about human conduct.  DO NOT answer with what you think in particular makes a human action morally good.  DO answer with the general description of how human actions are thought to be morally good or otherwise.  On what do such thoughts of moral appraisal rest?

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Written Assignment for MODULE 3 THE MORAL CLIMATE OF HEALTH CARE

1. Reading Comprehension

In this module there has been discussion of values and conflicts in values. Institutional values and individual values have been presented.  What are those Institutional values and individual values and how do they clash?

2. Critical Thinking

In health care, medicine and medical research there often occurs a clash in values. These conflicts exist amongst the providers and between the providers and the recipients of care. Provide an example of one such conflict.

1. Describe the situation or case

2. state what the conflict is

3. state clearly and deliberately and underline what the Institutional values and individual values  are that are in conflict. BE SURE that you do this.  State the values .  Be explicit and clear. Underline for emphasis.

If you choose to use a personal case please do not use names or identify yourself. Put in in the third person and use pseudonyms.

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Written Assignment for MODULE 4 PROFESSIONALISM ELITISM AND HEALTH CARE

1. Reading Comprehension

A. What are the professional codes of physicians or medical societies based upon? Are they ethical codes? If not, what are they? If so, how are they ethical? What purpose (s) do such ethical codes serve?

B. Describe the following models for the doctor-patient or scientist-subject relationship and discuss any problematic characteristics of each.

1. Code

2.Contract

3. Covenant and Consent as a Canon of Loyalty

2. Critical Thinking

What are the desirable and undesirable characteristics of each model for the doctor-patient or scientist-subject relationship , if any, and why do you think so? Include the ideas of philanthropy, proficiency, loyalty and responsive obligation in your answer.  BE SURE that you include the ideas of philanthropy, proficiency, loyalty and responsive obligation in your answer.

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Written Assignment for MODULE 5 ETHICS AND NURSING

1. Reading Comprehension

A.

What are the nurse's duties and responsibilities toward recipients of their care? < It is quite a list!!

B.

Discuss the nurse-physician conflict where ethical duties and rights are concerned. < They have different roles and operate out of different models!!!

C.

How can nurses serve as advocates for the recipients of their care? What does that advocacy involve?

2. Critical Thinking

D. Explain the notion of collective responsibility and the conditions under which it comes into being and how it might apply to nurses.

After doing that you may offer an example of a case.

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Written Assignment for MODULE 6 RIGHTS TRUTH AND CONSENT

1. Reading Comprehension

A.

Do people have the ethical right to Informed Consent?  What ethical principle supports this "right"? Explain how the principle supports the "right" as a "good" thing.  If not, why not?

Why? What are the difficulties with it? What limitations might exist?

B. Do people have the right to know their diagnosis and prognosis as well as anything else connected with their condition, their treatment and its consequences?  What ethical principle supports this "right"? Explain how the principle supports the "right" as a "good" thing.  If not, why not?

C. Is it the right of people receiving health care to have the truth, the whole truth and nothing but the truth from their physicians insofar as their diagnosis, prognosis and treatment is concerned? If so, what is it based upon?  What ethical principle supports this "right"? Explain how the principle supports the "right" as a "good" thing.  If not, why not?

2. Critical Thinking

B. What are the limits on the autonomy of a person and then of a person reduced to the role of a  "patient"?

C. Under what circumstances can confidentiality be breached? Provide an ethical justification (principle+reasoning) for your position.

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Written Assignment for MODULE 7 HUMAN EXPERIMENTATION

From: Munson, Ronald. INTERVENTION AND REFLECTION.6th ED.,Belmont, California: Wadsworth Publishing Company,2000

. Page 547 Decision Scenario #6

"You realize," Dr. Thorne said, "that you may not be in the group that receives medication. You may be in the placebo group for at least part of the time."

"Right," Ms. Ross said. "You�re just going to give me some medicine."

"And do you understand the aims of the research?"

"You wan tot help me get better," Ms. Ross suggested hesitantly.

"We hope you get better, of course. But that�s not what we�re trying to accomplish here. We�re trying to find out if this medication will help other people in your condition if we can treat them earlier than we were able to treat you."

"You want to help people," Ms. Ross said.

"That�s right. But you do understand that we may not be helping you in this experiment?"

"Not exactly. I mean, we aren�t going to try to harm you. But we aren�t necessarily going to be giving you the preferred treatment for your complaint either. Do you know the difference between research and therapy?"

"Research is when you�re trying to find something out. You�re searching around."

"That�s right. And we�re asking you to be part of a research effort. As I told you, there are some risks. Besides the possibility of not getting treatment that you need, the drug may produce limited hepatic portal damage. We�re not sure how much."

"I think I understand," Ms. Ross said.

"I�m sure you do,: said Dr. Thorne. "I understand that you are freely volunteering to participate in this research."

"Yes, sir. Mrs. Woolend, she told me if I volunteered I�d get a letter put in my file and I could get early release."

"Mrs. Woolend told you that the review board would take your volunteering into account when they consider whether you should be put on work-release."

"Yes, sir. And I�m awfully anxious to get out of here. I�ve got two children stay with my aunt, and I need to get out of this place as quick as I can."

"I understand. We can�t promise you release, of course. But your participation will look good on your record. Now I have some papers here I want you to sign."

 Critical Thinking

State what the ethical problems are in this case.  There are several.  State at least three of them.

If you have the Munson text Intervention and Reflection then answer>>>What the ethical position (ethical principle used by) of Hellman and Hellman would be and why you think so.  Summarize their thinking-use quotes.

Hellman and Hellman are Samuel Hellman and Deborah H. Hellman authors of "Of Mice but not Men: Problems of the randomized Clinical Trial" New England Journal of Medicine. Vol. 324 no 22 (1991) pp 1585-1589 in Munson 7th ed pp 62-66.  8th edition pp. 61-64.

Intervention and Reflection 5th ed. scenario #5 page 415
  • It is in textbook.
  • Intervention and Reflection 6th ed. scenario #6 page 547, Scenario 2
  • It is in textbook.
  • Intervention and Reflection 7th ed. scenario #4 page 94, Scenario 2
  • It is in textbook.
  • Intervention and Reflection 8th ed. scenario #4 page 93, Scenario 4

    If you do NOT have the Munson text Intervention and Reflection  you can access it here:

    Http://crystal.lib.buffalo.edu/libraries/reserve/course/phi337/hellman.pdf

    If you still cannot access it then you can read the alternate article by Hans Jonas and then answer>>>

    What would Hans Jonas make of this case?  Would he think it was being handled in a manner that was morally correct or not? Summarize his thinking-use quotes.

    READ  Title: Philosophical Reflections on Experimenting with Human Subjects

    Author: Hans Jonas   Publication Information:  This essay is included, on pp.105-131, in a 1980 re-edition of Jonas' Philosophical Essays: From Current Creed toTechnological Man, published by the University of Chicago Press available here https://www.sfu.ca/~andrewf/jonas.pdf

    Summary and comments here: http://www2.sunysuffolk.edu/pecorip/SCCCWEB/ETEXTS/MEDICAL_ETHICS_TEXT/Chapter_7_Human_Experimentation/Readings.htm

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    NOTE:  A Case Study is due for this module at the same time the written assignment is due!

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    I suggest that you create your assignments using your word-processing program and spell checker , then copy and paste your text-answers into the message window of an email ,and send it to the instructor by email with the text inside the email message window. DO NOT send attachments .

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    Written Assignment for MODULE 8 ABORTION

    From: Munson, Ronald. INTERVENTION AND REFLECTION.

    6th ED.,Belmont, California: Wadsworth Publishing Company,2000

    , Page 126, Decision Scenario #1

    For months doctors told eleven-year-old Visna (as we�ll call her) and her parents that her abdominal pains were nothing but indigestion. Then in July 1998 the truth finally emerged�Visna was twenty-seven weeks pregnant.

    Visna�s family had emigrated from India to the Detroit suburb of Sterling Heights, Michigan, only the previous summer. Her parents found factory jobs and rented a two-bedroom apartment, and Visna shared one of the rooms with Hari, her sixteen-year-old brother. Sometime during the winter after their arrival in the United States, Visna told her parents that Hari had raped her, but this emerged only after Visna, who had turned twelve, was found to be pregnant.

    As soon as Bisn�s parents learned her condition, they made plans to take her to Kansas for an abortion. Visna would have to have a late-term abortion, and because Michigan law bans almost all abortions after twenty-four weeks, her family would have to take her out of state. But their plans were frustrated when they were leaked to a family court judge. Charges of parental negligence were filed by prosecutors against her parents, and the court immediately removed Visna from her family and made her a ward of the state.

    At a court hearing, Visna�s doctor argued that if her pregnancy were allowed to continue, it could cause her both physical and psychological damage. A psychologist testified that because Visna was a Hindu, if she were forced to have an illegitimate child, it would make her unfit for marriage by another Hindu. Her parents also expressed their worry that if Visna had a child, the child might suffer from genetic abnormalities and, in particular, might be mentally retarded, because her brother was the father.

    At the end of the hearing the prosecution announced it was convinced pregnancy might endanger Visna�s life and dropped the negligence charge against her parents. Visna was reunited with her family, and her parents pursued their original plan of taking her to Kansas. In Wichita, Dr. George Tiller, who had been shot in 1993 by a pro-life activist, stopped the fetus�s heart and used drugs to induce labor, thus performing a "partial-birth" abortion.

    1. Reading Comprehension

     For this case what would each of the following authors hold and WHY :  Provide a paragraph on each explaining their positions and use some quotations.

    • A.  Susan Sherwin,
    • B.  Sidney Callahan,
    • C.  Peter Alward

    Find descriptions of their positions here:

    http://www2.sunysuffolk.edu/pecorip/SCCCWEB/ETEXTS/MEDICAL_ETHICS_TEXT/Chapter_8_Abortion/Readings.htm

    2. Critical Thinking

    Using the DIALECTICAL PROCESS state what your ethical position would be on the Case of Visna and why. You are to take a position and defend it. You should use some ethical principle to decide what you think is the morally correct thing to do. You must state those principles and explain how they have been applied to the situation. You should indicate that you have rejected alternative positions to your own and the reasons why you have done so.  In so doing you need to enunciate clearly the values and ethical principle(s) you are using to both reject the alternative positions and to defend or support your own.

    Use this template or form to make certain that you include each part of the process-parts a to e

    Label your parts with the letters a to e to make very clear that you have done each part.

    Dialectical thinking: the 5 parts

    • a. Take a position on this question or issue Be as exact as you can be.  Be precise in your use of language (ethical principles and values).
    • b.  Provide the reasons why you think this position is better defended by reason and evidence than are the alternative positions Position defended using reasoning (ethical principles and values) in support of the judgment (conclusion of the  argument).  You state the reasons why the position you take makes sense and has evidence and reasons (ethical principles and values) to support it other than your feelings or personal preference or your opinion or what you were brought up to believe or what just about everyone you know thinks or believes.   Philosophers have offered such reasons (ethical principles and values) and evidence for the positions they have taken and you should consider them and if you agree you can and should so state them in support of your own position.
    • c.  State the reasons why you found the other positions flawed or less defensible than the one you are defending
    • d.  State the criticisms of your position
    • e.   Respond to the criticisms- rebuttal- how do you defend your position in light of those criticisms

    VIDEO on Dialectical Process http://www.youtube.com/user/PhilipPecorino#play/uploads/21/zziTWJPbYyU

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    NOTE:  A Case Study is due for this module at the same time the written assignment is due!

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    I suggest that you create your assignments using your word-processing program and spell checker , then copy and paste your text-answers into the message window of an email ,and send it to the instructor by email with the text inside the email message window. DO NOT send attachments .

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    Written Assignment for MODULE 9 SEVERELY IMPAIRED NEWBORNS, FUTILITY AND INFANTICIDE

    From: Munson, Ronald. INTERVENTION AND REFLECTION.6th ED.,Belmont, California: Wadsworth Publishing Company,2000

    . Page 185 Scenario #8

    I had been working as a bioethics advisor at University Hospital for three months before I was called in to consult on a pediatrics case. Dr. Savano, the attending obstetrician, asked me to meet with him and Dr. Hinds, one of the staff surgeons, to talk with the father of a newborn girl.

    I went to the consulting room with Dr. Hinds to Joel Blake. From what Dr. Savano had already told me, I knew that Mr. Blake was in his early twenties and worked as clerk at a discount store called the Bargain Barn. The Baby�s mother was Hilda Godgeburn, and she and Mr. Blake were not married.

    Mr. Blake was very nervous. He knew that the baby had been born just three hours or so before and that Ms. Godgeburn was in very good condition. But Dr. Savano had not told him anything about the baby.

    "I�m sorry to have to tell you this," Dr. Savano said. "But the baby was born with severe defects."

    "My God," Blake said. "What�s the matter?" "It�s a condition called spina bifida," Dr. Savano said. "There�s a hole in the baby�s back just below the shoulder blades, and some of the nerves from the spine are protruding through it. The baby will have little or no control over her legs, and she won�t be able to control her bladder of bowels." Dr. Savano paused to see if Mr. Blake was understanding him. "The legs and feet are also deformed to some extent because of the defective spinal nerves."

    Mr. Blake was shaking his head, paying close attention but hardly able to accept what he was being told.

    "There�s one more thing," Dr. Savano said. "The spinal defect is making the head fill up with liquid from the spinal canal. That�s putting pressure on the brain. We can be sure that the brain is already damaged, but if the pressure continues the child will die."

    "Is there anything that can be done?" Blake asked. "Anything at all?"

    Dr. Savano nodded to Dr. Hinds. "We can do a lot," Dr. Hinds said. "We can drain the fluid from the head, repair the opening in the spine, and later we can operate on the feet and legs."

    "Then why aren�t you doing it?" Mr. Blake asked. "Do I have to agree to it? If I do, then I agree. Please go ahead."

    "It�s not that simple," Dr. Hinds. "You see, we can perform surgery, but that won�t turn your baby into a normal child. She will always be paralyzed and mentally retarded. To what extent, we can�t say now. Her bodily wastes will have to be drained to the outside by means of artificial devices that we�ll have to connect surgically. There will have to be several operations, probably, to get the drain from her head to work properly. A number of operations on her feet will be necessary."

    "Oh, God," Mr. Blake said. "Hilda and I can�t take it. We don�t have enough money for the operations. And even if we did, we would have to spend the rest of our lives taking care of the child."

    "The child could be put into a state institution, " Dr. Hinds said.

    "That�s even worse," Mr. Blake said. "Just handling our problem to somebody else. And what kind of life would she have? A pitiful, miserable life."

    None of the rest of us said anything. "You said she would die without the operation to drain her head," Mr. Blake said. "How long would that take?"

    "A few hours, perhaps," Dr. Savano said. "But we can�t be sure. It may take several days, and conceivably she might not die at all."

    "Oh, God," Mr. Blake said again. "I don�t want her to suffer. Can she just be put to sleep painlessly?"

    Dr. Savano didn�t answer the question. He seemed not even to hear it. "We�ll have to talk to Ms. Godgeburn also," he said. " And before you make up your mind for good, I want you to talk with the bioethics advisor. You two discuss the matter, and the advisor will perhaps bring out some things you haven�t though about. Dr. Hinds will leave you both together now. Let me know when you�ve reached your final decision and we�ll talk again."

    Critical Thinking

    Using the DIALECTICAL PROCESS state what your ethical position would be and why. You are to take a position and defend it. You are to advise Mr. Blake of what would be morally correct or acceptable.  You should use some ethical principle to decide what you think is the morally correct thing to do. You must state those principles and explain how they have been applied to the situation. You should indicate that you have rejected alternative positions to your own and the reasons why you have done so.  In so doing you need to enunciate clearly the

    values and ethical principle(s) you are using to both reject the alternative positions and to defend or support your own.

    Use this template or form to make certain that you include each part of the process-parts a to e

    Label your parts with the letters a to e to make very clear that you have done each part.

    Dialectical thinking: the 5 parts

    • a. Take a position on this question or issue Be as exact as you can be.  Be precise in your use of language
    (ethical principles and values).
  • b.  Provide the reasons why you think this position is better defended by reason and evidence than are the alternative positions Position defended using reasoning (ethical principles and values) in support of the judgment (conclusion of the  argument).  You state the reasons why the position you take makes sense and has evidence and reasons (ethical principles and values) to support it other than your feelings or personal preference or your opinion or what you were brought up to believe or what just about everyone you know thinks or believes.   Philosophers have offered such reasons (ethical principles and values) and evidence for the positions they have taken and you should consider them and if you agree you can and should so state them in support of your own position.
  • c.  State the reasons why you found the other positions flawed or less defensible than the one you are defending
  • d.  State the criticisms of your position
  • e.   Respond to the criticisms- rebuttal- how do you defend your position in light of those criticisms
  • ____VIDEO on Dialectical Process http://www.youtube.com/user/PhilipPecorino#play/uploads/21/zziTWJPbYyU__________________

    NOTE:  A Case Study is due for this module at the same time the written assignment is due!

    ***************************************************

    I suggest that you create your assignments using your word-processing program and spell checker , then copy and paste your text-answers into the message window of an email ,and send it to the instructor by email with the text inside the email message window. DO NOT send attachments .

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    Written Assignment for MODULE 10 CARE OF THE DYING

    From: Munson, Ronald. INTERVENTION AND REFLECTION.6th ED.,Belmont, California: Wadsworth Publishing Company,2000

    . Page 243 Scenario #2

    Jeffry Box was eighty-one years old when he was brought to Doctor�s Hospital. His right side was paralyzed, he spoke in a garbled way, and he had trouble understanding even the simplest matters. His only known relative was his sister four years younger, and she lived half a continent away. When a hospital social worker called to tell her about her brother�s condition, she was quite uninterested. "I haven�t seen him in fifteen years," she said. "I thought he might already be dead. Just do whatever you think best for him. I�m too old to worry about him."

    Neurological tests and X-ray studies showed that Mr. Box was suffering from a brain hemorrhage caused by a ruptured brain vessel.

    "You can fix it?" asked Dr. Hollins. She was the resident responsible for Mr. Box�s primary care. The man she addressed was Dr. Carl Oceana, the staff�s only neuro surgeon.

    "Sure," said Dr. Oceana. "I can repair the vessel and clean out the mess. But it won�t do much good, you know?"

    "You mean he�ll still be paralyzed?"

    "And he�ll still be mentally incoherent. After the operation he�ll have to be placed in a chronic care place, because he won�t be able to see to his own needs."

    "And if you don�t operate?" Dr. Hollins asked.

    Dr. Oceana shrugged. "He�ll be dead by tomorrow. Maybe sooner, depending on how long it takes for the pressure in his skull to build up."

    "What would you do?"

    "I know what I would want done to me if I were the patient," said Dr. Oceana. "I�d want people to keep their knives out of my head and let me die a nice, peaceful death."

    "But we don�t know what he would want." Dr. Hollins said.

    "He�s never been our patient before, and the social worker hasn�t been able to find any friends who might tell us what he would want done."

    "Let�s just put ourselves in his place," said Dr. Oceana. "Let�s do unto others what we would want done unto us."

    "That means letting Mr. Box die."

    "Exactly."

    1. Reading Comprehension

    State what the Rule Utilitarian and Natural Law positions would be in this case and why you think so for each position.

    Critical Thinking

    Using the DIALECTICAL PROCESS state what your ethical position would be on the case of Mr. Box and why.

    You are to take a position and defend it. You should use some ethical principle to decide what you think is the morally correct thing to do. You must state those principles and explain how they have been applied to the situation. You should indicate that you have rejected alternative positions to your own and the reasons why you have done so.  In so doing you need to enunciate clearly the values and ethical principle(s) you are using to both reject the alternative positions and to defend or support your own.

    Use this template or form to make certain that you include each part of the process-parts a to e

    Label your parts with the letters a to e to make very clear that you have done each part.

    Dialectical thinking: the 5 parts

    • a. Take a position on this question or issue Be as exact as you can be.  Be precise in your use of language
    (ethical principles and values).
  • b.  Provide the reasons why you think this position is better defended by reason and evidence than are the alternative positions Position defended using reasoning (ethical principles and values) in support of the judgment (conclusion of the  argument).  You state the reasons why the position you take makes sense and has evidence and reasons (ethical principles and values) to support it other than your feelings or personal preference or your opinion or what you were brought up to believe or what just about everyone you know thinks or believes.   Philosophers have offered such reasons (ethical principles and values) and evidence for the positions they have taken and you should consider them and if you agree you can and should so state them in support of your own position.
  • c.  State the reasons why you found the other positions flawed or less defensible than the one you are defending
  • d.  State the criticisms of your position
  • e.   Respond to the criticisms- rebuttal- how do you defend your position in light of those criticisms
  • _____VIDEO on Dialectical Process http://www.youtube.com/user/PhilipPecorino#play/uploads/21/zziTWJPbYyU_________________

    NOTE:  A Case Study is due for this module at the same time the written assignment is due!

    ***************************************************

    I suggest that you create your assignments using your word-processing program and spell checker , then copy and paste your text-answers into the message window of an email ,and send it to the instructor by email with the text inside the email message window. DO NOT send attachments .

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    Written Assignment for MODULE 11  DELIBERATE TERMINATION OF LIFE AND PHYSICIAN ASSISTED SUICIDE

    From: Munson, Ronald. INTERVENTION AND REFLECTION.6th ED.,Belmont, California: Wadsworth Publishing Company,2000

    , Page 247, Scenario #8

    "Apparently, he was inside the take with an oxygen hose to provide ventilation," Dr. Mangel said. "There was some oil residue on the walls. When Mr. Golenga struck an arc to weld the seam, there was a flash fire."

    Mrs. Golenga gripped the hand of her nineteen-year-old son, Cervando. Both had been crying, but now listening was so important that they forced back their tears.

    "How badly hurt is he?" Mrs. Golenga asked.

    "Very badly," Dr. Mangel said. "Most of his body is covered with severe burns, and his lungs are damaged form breathing in the fire and smoke."

    "Will he live?" Cervando asked.

    "I have to be honest with you and say that I don�t think he will," Dr. Mangel said. "We are giving him plasma and saline solutions to rehydrate him and antibiotics to try to stop infections. But he hasn�t got much of a chance."

    "The pain, what about the pain?" asked Mrs. Golenga.

    "There�s only so much we can do."

    "There�s really no hope?" Cervando asked.

    "I wouldn�t say that," Dr. Mangel said. "There is always hope. But in this case it is very limited. He might die in a few hours, or he might die tomorrow or the next day."

    "Please," Mrs. Golenga said. "Can you help him die? I know he doesn�t want to suffer if he has no real hope. He told me often �If something happens to me, don�t let them stick me full of needles and keep me alive. Tell them to put me out of my misery.� Can you do that, Doctor?"

    Are you sure that�s what he would want?" Dr. Mangel asked.

    "My mother is right," Cervando said. "I�ve heard my father say that many times. He said he never wanted to just lie around and suffer, being a burden to himself and everyone. We want to do as he wanted us to."

    "We could stop treating hom," Dr. Mangel said. "then let nature take its course."

    "That sounds terrible," Mrs. Golenga said. "To make a man fight for his life when he has no hope and ho help. It is cold and cruel."

    "I�m sorry," said Dr. Mangel. "It�s all that the law permits me to do."

    1. Reading Comprehension

    State whether James Rachels in Active and Passive Euthanasia  (

    http://www.qcc.cuny.edu/SocialSciences/ppecorino/DeathandDying_TEXT/Rachels_Active_Passive.htm  would disagree with Daniel Callahan in  his article  When Self Determination Runs Amok (http://www.qcc.cuny.edu/SocialSciences/ppecorino/MEDICAL_ETHICS_TEXT/Chapter_10_Care_of_the_Dying/READING_Callahan.htmin this case as to what to do and defend your answer giving reasons for what you think their positions would be.

    Critical Thinking

    Using the DIALECTICAL PROCESS state what your ethical position would be on the Case of Mr. Mengel and why. What should Dr. Mangel do from an ethical viewpoint? You are to take a position and defend it. You should use some ethical principle to decide what you think is the morally correct thing to do. You must state those principles and explain how they have been applied to the situation. You should indicate that you have rejected alternative positions to your own and the reasons why you have done so.  In so doing you need to enunciate clearly the values and ethical principle(s) you are using to both reject the alternative positions and to defend or support your own.

    Use this template or form to make certain that you include each part of the process-parts a to e

    Label your parts with the letters a to e to make very clear that you have done each part.

    Dialectical thinking: the 5 parts

    • a. Take a position on this question or issue Be as exact as you can be.  Be precise in your use of language
    (ethical principles and values).
  • b.  Provide the reasons why you think this position is better defended by reason and evidence than are the alternative positions Position defended using reasoning (ethical principles and values) in support of the judgment (conclusion of the  argument).  You state the reasons why the position you take makes sense and has evidence and reasons (ethical principles and values) to support it other than your feelings or personal preference or your opinion or what you were brought up to believe or what just about everyone you know thinks or believes.   Philosophers have offered such reasons (ethical principles and values) and evidence for the positions they have taken and you should consider them and if you agree you can and should so state them in support of your own position.
  • c.  State the reasons why you found the other positions flawed or less defensible than the one you are defending
  • d.  State the criticisms of your position
  • e.   Respond to the criticisms- rebuttal- how do you defend your position in light of those criticisms
  • ____________________VIDEO on Dialectical Process http://www.youtube.com/user/PhilipPecorino#play/uploads/21/zziTWJPbYyU

    NOTE:  A Case Study is due for this module at the same time the written assignment is due!

    ***************************************************

    I suggest that you create your assignments using your word-processing program and spell checker , then copy and paste your text-answers into the message window of an email ,and send it to the instructor by email with the text inside the email message window. DO NOT send attachments .

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    Written Assignment for MODULE 12 REPRODUCTION , ASSISTANCE AND CONTROL

    From: Munson, Ronald. INTERVENTION AND REFLECTION.6th ED.,Belmont, California: Wadsworth Publishing Company,2000

    . Page 730 Scenario 10

    "I�m going to be blunt about it," Dr. Carl McKensie said. "You are fifty-five, and that�s too old to have a child."

    "You�re not trying to tell me it�s impossible, are you?" Kisha Clare asked. "I�ve read that you can use donated eggs and donated sperm to fertilize them outside the body, then implant them and have a normal pregnancy. I�m sure it�s expensive, but Tom and I have got enough money, and I want to have a baby."

    "Oh, it�s possible," Dr. McKensie admitted, "but it�s a bad idea because you�ll be too old to take care of a child properly. When he starts first grade, you�ll be sixty-two, and when he graduated from high school, you�ll be seventy-four�if you�re still alive." McKensie shook his head. "You should have thought of having a child earlier."

    "I had a career to work on and a lot of personal problems." Clare frowned, remembering the long hours in the office and how relieved she was when she finally left her husband. "I can be a better mother now than I could have been when I was thirty or even forty. I�m financially secure, I�m happy with myself, and I really want a child." She shook her head. "Statistically, I�m going to live for another twenty-five years, and that�s enough to raise a child."

    "But is it fair to a child to be raised by an old person?"

    "Grandparents raise children all the time." Clare glared at Dr. McKensie. "And men have children whenever they want to, no matter how old they are. They don�t have to get permission from some doctor."

    "But an older man can have children only if he has some younger woman as a partner." Dr. McKensie glared back at Clare. "That way the child has one younger parent."

    "I think you�re discriminating against me," Clare said in a flat voice.

    "I am." Dr. McKensie nodded his head. "But it�s justifiable. There are compelling reasons why an older, postmenopausal woman, even if she has the money, should not be allowed to become a mother, just because she wants to. It�s unfair to society, to younger women with fertility problems, and to the child."

     Critical Thinking

    Provide ethical grounds for a policy with regard to the age of a woman requesting to receive an implantation of a fertilized egg.  Do NOT simply respond to this case. Focus on setting a policy for all women and all doctors to follow.

    Using the DIALECTICAL PROCESS state what your ethical position would be on

    Assisting Women over the Age of Menopause to become Pregnant and why. You are to take a position and defend it. You should use some ethical principle to decide what you think is the morally correct thing to do. You must state those principles and explain how they have been applied to the situation. You should indicate that you have rejected alternative positions to your own and the reasons why you have done so.  In so doing you need to enunciate clearly the values and ethical principle(s) you are using to both reject the alternative positions and to defend or support your own.

    Use this template or form to make certain that you include each part of the process-parts a to e

    Label your parts with the letters a to e to make very clear that you have done each part.

    Dialectical thinking: the 5 parts

    • a. Take a position on this question or issue Be as exact as you can be.  Be precise in your use of language
    (ethical principles and values).
  • b.  Provide the reasons why you think this position is better defended by reason and evidence than are the alternative positions Position defended using reasoning (ethical principles and values) in support of the judgment (conclusion of the  argument).  You state the reasons why the position you take makes sense and has evidence and reasons (ethical principles and values) to support it other than your feelings or personal preference or your opinion or what you were brought up to believe or what just about everyone you know thinks or believes.   Philosophers have offered such reasons (ethical principles and values) and evidence for the positions they have taken and you should consider them and if you agree you can and should so state them in support of your own position.
  • c.  State the reasons why you found the other positions flawed or less defensible than the one you are defending
  • d.  State the criticisms of your position
  • e.   Respond to the criticisms- rebuttal- how do you defend your position in light of those criticisms
  • ______________________VIDEO on Dialectical Process http://www.youtube.com/user/PhilipPecorino#play/uploads/21/zziTWJPbYyU

    NOTE:  A Case Study is due for this module at the same time the written assignment is due!

    ***************************************************

    I suggest that you create your assignments using your word-processing program and spell checker , then copy and paste your text-answers into the message window of an email ,and send it to the instructor by email with the text inside the email message window. DO NOT send attachments .

    ***************************************************

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    Written Assignment for MODULE 13 ALLOCATION OF RESOURCES: SCARCITY AND TRIAGE

    From: Munson, Ronald. INTERVENTION AND REFLECTION.6th ED.,Belmont, California: Wadsworth Publishing Company,2000

    ., Page 799, Decision Scenario #9

    Dr. Sarah Brandywine hurried into Dr. Kline�s inner office. Dr. Kline was transplant coordinator at Mid-western General Hospital, and he was expecting her. She had called him for an appointment as soon as she had realized the dimension of the problem with Mr. Wardell.

    "So tell me about Mr. Wardell," Dr.Kine said, nodding toward the chair beside his desk.

    "He�s fifty-one-year-old man who came to the hospital two days ago because he was frightened by the jaundice and ascites he developed over the course of the last week," Dr. Brandywine said. "He have been experiencing fatigue and loss of appetite several weeks prior to the jaundice. His liver is swollen and lumpy."

    "Sounds like cirrhosis," Dr. Kline said. "I�m sure you did liver function tests, but what about a biopsy?"

    "We did both yesterday. And I called you right after the final results. There�s so much scarring that Mr. Wardell has little liver function left." She shook her head. "I want to put him on the transplant list."

    "What�s the cause of his disease?"

    "It�s alcohol induced."

    "No way." Dr. Kline shook his head. "No livers for alcoholics. No ifs, ands, or buts about it."

    "This is a man with two kids." Dr. Brandywine tried to keep her voice level. "One�s twelve, and the other is eight. Their mother died two years ago, and their dad is all they�ve got left."

    "Oh, God, the kids make it particularly sad." Dr. Kline�s voice took on a pained expression. "But look, thirty thousand people a year from alcoholic cirrhosis, and we can�t treat them at all."

    "I know we can�t, but can�t we treat some?" Dr. Brandy wine leaned forward. "Is being an alcoholic enough for an automatic turndown?"

    "I�m afraid so." Dr. Kline nodded. "These are people who created their own problem. There are far being enough livers to go around, so it�s only fair for us to put folks with problems not of their own making on the list and to leave others off."

    "But, look, this guy�s got two kids depending on him." Sarah squeezed her hands into fists. "If I can get him into a rehab program, can we promise him the chance at a liver then?" She quickly added. "Not a guaranteed liver, but a chance at one."

    "The answer�s still no." Dr. Kline paused. "I�m not saying alcoholics can�t be reformed, but I am saying they�re bad risks. If we give a transplant to somebody whose liver was destroyed by biliary cirrhosis, we�re likely to get a good, long-term survival. But if we transplant somebody who�s been drinking for the last ten or twenty years, we�re not likely to get food, long term results. The guy may promise to stop drinking and maybe he�ll do it for a while. But chances are good that, within a few years, he�s going to be back in the hospital with liver failure again, and alcohol is going to be the cause."

    "I admit the numbers are against me." Dr. Brandywine inhaled deeply, then let her breath out in a long whoosh. "There�s nothing I can say to convince you?"

    "We can�t afford to risk wasting a liver," Dr. Kline said. "That�s what I�ve got to convince you of." He shook his head. "It breaks my heart to think about Mr. Wardell�s children, but I�ve got to think about the parents with cirrhosis who aren�t alcoholics."

    Critical Thinking

    Should lifestyle factors be considered in the allocation of scarce life saving medical resources? Defend your position using ETHICAL principles.  Using the DIALECTICAL PROCESS state what your ethical position would be and why. You are to take a position and defend it. You should use some ethical principle to decide what you think is the morally correct thing to do. You must state those principles and explain how they have been applied to the situation. You should indicate that you have rejected alternative positions to your own and the reasons why you have done so.  In so doing you need to enunciate clearly the values and ethical principle(s) you are using to both reject the alternative positions and to defend or support your own.

    Use this template or form to make certain that you include each part of the process-parts a to e

    Label your parts with the letters a to e to make very clear that you have done each part.

    Dialectical thinking: the 5 parts

    • a. Take a position on this question or issue Be as exact as you can be.  Be precise in your use of language
    (ethical principles and values).
  • b.  Provide the reasons why you think this position is better defended by reason and evidence than are the alternative positions Position defended using reasoning (ethical principles and values) in support of the judgment (conclusion of the  argument).  You state the reasons why the position you take makes sense and has evidence and reasons (ethical principles and values) to support it other than your feelings or personal preference or your opinion or what you were brought up to believe or what just about everyone you know thinks or believes.   Philosophers have offered such reasons (ethical principles and values) and evidence for the positions they have taken and you should consider them and if you agree you can and should so state them in support of your own position.
  • c.  State the reasons why you found the other positions flawed or less defensible than the one you are defending
  • d.  State the criticisms of your position
  • e.   Respond to the criticisms- rebuttal- how do you defend your position in light of those criticisms
  • ______________________VIDEO on Dialectical Process http://www.youtube.com/user/PhilipPecorino#play/uploads/21/zziTWJPbYyU

    NOTE:  A Case Study is due for this module at the same time the written assignment is due!

    ***************************************************

    I suggest that you create your assignments using your word-processing program and spell checker , then copy and paste your text-answers into the message window of an email ,and send it to the instructor by email with the text inside the email message window. DO NOT send attachments .

    ***************************************************

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    Written Assignment for MODULE 14 A CLAIM OF A RIGHT TO HEALTH CARE

    I

    From: Munson, Ronald. INTERVENTION AND REFLECTION.6th ED.,Belmont, California: Wadsworth Publishing Company,2000

    ., Page 863, Decision Scenario 6

    "Let me explain it to you, Mr. Faust," Charles Young said. "Although your wife is covered by Medicare, we cannot pay for the care she is receiving in the nursing home. As an Alzheimer�s patient, she�s getting custodial care, and that is explicitly excluded from Medicare coverage. Do you have any insurance?"

    "My wife and I both have coverage through my job. Bu the benefits office told me exactly the same thing. My policy doesn�t cover long-term, chronic, or custodial care."

    "I�m sorry to hear that," Young said. "That means that you�ll have to pay the total cost of care yourself."

    "Where can a sales rep get that kind of money?" Mr. Faust said. "A nursing home will cost me forty or fifty thousand dollars a year. If I sell our house and use all our savings, I could pay for maybe a year or two, but then I wouldn�t have anything to live on myself. Where could I live? How could I eat?"

    "The only alternative is to divest yourself of your assets so that you cannot be held legally responsible for paying for your wife�s care. The you and she can both get assistance under the Medicaid program."

    "Then I have to literally become a pauper before I can get any help?"

    "I�m sorry to say that�s true."

     Critical Thinking

    Use any

    single (one) ethical principlefrom the group we have covered to support your position on each of these three issues. Hopefully it is the principle that you have decided is closest to your values and will use in making moral choices. If you are tempted to use different ethical principles for each of the three issues then you are an ethical egoist and you should use that principle on all three issues.

    1. Should a national health care program pay for the custodial care of the elderly? Defend your position using ETHICAL principles.

    2.

    Should family members be required by law to help pay the health care expenses of the other family members? Defend your position using ETHICAL principles.

    3.

    Should people with incomes adequate to cover their health care expenses or to buy private health insurance be ineligible to participate in a national health insurance plan? Defend your position using ETHICAL principles.

    Use any

    single (one) ethical principlefrom the group we have covered to support your position on each of these three issues. Hopefully it is the principle that you have decided is closest to your values and will use in making moral choices. If you are tempted to use different ethical principles for each of the three issues then you are an ethical egoist and you should use that principle on all three issues.

    _____________________

    NOTE:  A Case Study is due for this module at the same time the written assignment is due!

    ***************************************************

    I suggest that you create your assignments using your word-processing program and spell checker , then copy and paste your text-answers into the message window of an email ,and send it to the instructor by email with the text inside the email message window. DO NOT send attachments .

    ***************************************************

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    Written Assignment for MODULE:  CULMINATING ACTIVITY: BONUS EXERCISE

    FOUR (4)  Parts

    PART I  ABOUT THE SUBJECT MATTER: FINAL EXERCISE 

    1. Which of the issues covered this semester has been the most important and why so?

    2. Which of the issues covered this semester has meant anything to you personally and why so?

    3. Why are not more people aware of these troublesome questions, issues or problems?

    4. Now that you have been educated as to these issues in Biomedical Ethics in what way will they have any consequence in your life?

    5. Are you in a better position now to think about and handle these issues using ethical principles?

    ==================================================

    PART II ETHICAL DIALECTICAL THINKING

    Place your best example of using ethical dialectical thinking into a submission to me. Send it to me by email in a separate email from all other messages or submissions.

    Title it as : ETHICAL DIALECTICAL THINKING

    Using the DIALECTICAL PROCESS state what your ethical position would be and why. You are to take a position and defend it. You should use some ethical principle to decide what you think is the morally correct thing to do. You must state those principles and explain how they have been applied to the situation. You should indicate that you have rejected alternative positions to your own and the reasons why you have done so.  In so doing you need to enunciate clearly the values and ethical principle(s) you are using to both reject the alternative positions and to defend or support your own.

    VIDEO on Dialectical Process http://www.youtube.com/user/PhilipPecorino#play/uploads/21/zziTWJPbYyU

    ==================================================

    PART III.  COURSE OBJECTIVES

    This course has nine objectives on a scale of 0 to 5 with 5 as the highest level , how well do you think that you have achieved these objectives?

    • a. Identify and comprehend traditional and current issues in Biomedical Ethics;
    • b. Define the main areas of ethical discourse;
    • c. Discuss theories of ethics: teleological and deontological
    • d. Develop skills of critical ethical analysis of contemporary moral problems in medicine and health care.
    • e. Analyze and respond to the comments of other students regarding philosophical issues.
    • f. Identify
    • some of the basic content in the field of BIOMEDICAL ETHICS, traditional and current Issues in Biomedical Ethics,

      a. vocabulary

      b. concepts

      c. theories

    • g. Communicate
    • your awareness of and understanding of Biomedical Ethics.
    • h. Demonstrate
    • familiarity with the main areasof philosophic discourse related to these dilemmas in Biomedical Ethics ,
    • i.  Develop skills of critical analysis and dialectical thinking used in (a) analyzing cases and dilemmas , (b) in forming and defending positions, (c) analyzing and responding to the comments of other students regarding Biomedical issues.

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