Crime Causation Theories Essay

Theories Of Crime Causation


Research is being done so as to find the patterns and many factors that lead to criminal activities. This is because most governments are in the effort of fighting crime and providing safe communities and neighborhoods to live in. Theories that are said to promote crime are believed to provide the best insight into the crime. One must get these theories right to be able to fight crime in the most efficient way. These theoretical approaches are relevant. However, these approaches will be different in different individuals. Below are some of the theories of crime causation.

Biological and Development Life-course

The biological factors that are mostly looked into when we think of crime include the body physique and the inherited genes. These two are the most dominant. Others may include hormones, the brain and the evolutionary factors. Hormones especially in the youth in the teenage may be a major factor that leads to people getting involved in the crime. Inherited genes may also be a theory as many people that are in families that have had criminals in the past could bring up criminals in the future too. Malnutrition and some neurological problems are highly linked with criminal behavior. In life development, some research shows that some factors like the community, family and genetics may influence one’s personality. This may occur during certain stages of development but are believed to be more dominant in early stages of life development.

Sociological and Geographical Factors

Social factors are very many. Crime and criminal behavior are mainly contributed by the social factors. Most of the time, social factors lead to what is known as hate crimes. These crimes are made on the basis of color, ethnicity, class or religion. People that have been victims of these hate crimes may want to get back on the society by being in crime. Social factors most of the times bring about inequalities. It may make people fail to achieve their goals. In case some group of people gets in the same situation, it may lead to the formation of gangs. These groups may be involved in crimes. The other theory is a geographical factor. This includes the set up. People that are brought up in the urban set up are bound to be more into crime than those raised in the rural setup. The planning of space in the hangouts may be a major factor.

Theories Of Crime Causation

Main theories of crime causation can be stated as strain theory, social learning and control theories. To begin with strain theory, some individuals are more capable to control their anger than others. When someone gets angry about something he might be influenced to commit in crime. He believes that by acting that way he will be able to defeat his anger or strain. Below there are some examples:

  • Someone might end up to stealing because he has no money or might have huge financial issues
  • Someone who is or was abused physically and psychological he might act violent towards other people in order to overcome this
  • Someone who is addicted to drugs turns up to crime in order to maintain his drugs dose
  • Or someone might pursue revenge through crime

According to social learning theory, people become violent through their association with others. They are influenced by other people to do so. For example, someone with serious financial problems might be influenced from another person so that he will end up with a lot of money. An individual watching someone else acting violent might end up to turn to crime in order to be rewarded. They believe that other people will respect them. Also, family environment plays an important role. Someone who comes from a violent family environment is more likely to use violence against others.

On the other hand, control theorists have reverse opinion about this. They believe that people commit to crime because they want to achieve what they want with the easiest way. They are pursuing violence against other people in order to get what they want. These are individuals who believe only to themselves.

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