Akala Oxford Union Bibliography Chicago

1. Nigerians – Nigerians or Nigerian people are citizens and/or people with ancestry from Nigeria. Nigeria is composed of ethnic groups and cultures and the term Nigerian refers to a citizenship-based civic nationality. Nigerians derive from over 250 ethnic groups and languages, the English language is the lingua franca of Nigerians. About 50 percent of Nigerians are Muslims and the other 50 percent are Christians, northern Nigeria has been culturally influenced by Islamic influence including several major historic Islamic states in the region. The Kanem-Bornu Empire and the Sokoto Caliphate were major historical Islamic states in northern Nigeria, southern Nigeria historically held several powerful states, including the Benin Empire and Oyo Empire, Ife Empire and several other Yoruba states. Nigerian culture was profoundly affected by the British colonial rule, such as British colonial authorities denouncements and attacks upon polygamy, trial by ordeal, and certain types of sacrifices. At the same time, British colonial authorities maintained and promoted traditional Nigerian culture that strengthened colonial administration, the British replaced unpaid household labour with wage labour. Prior to colonization in the century, Nigerias tribes usually possessed the land as a community. Colonization brought the notion of individuals owning land and commercialization of land began and these villages compose members of the ethnicity related through ancestry as well as strangers who have been assimilated into the ethnicity. Since the time prior to colonization to the present it has been common practice of Nigerias tribes to adopt strangers into the tribes, a male elder commonly serves as a village chief. In Nigerias large cities, there is intermingling of Nigerians with foreigners, especially Europeans, Lebanese. The economic importance of Nigerias cities has resulted in migrations of people from their ethnic or cultural homeland to cities outside those territories. Ethnic, religious, and regional disputes and tensions have commonly divided Nigerians on political issues, in particular, cultural and political divisions between the Muslim north and the Christian south has politicized religion and caused significant political disputes in Nigeria. Ethnic-motivated and religious-motivated violence by extremists has increased tensions as well. Although there are cultural divisions amongst Nigerians, Nigerians commonly use the English language as their primary language, also, most Nigerians share a strong commitment to individual liberties and democracy. Even during periods of rule, such military governments were pressured to maintain democratic stances by the Nigerian people. Nigerias political figures commonly know multiple indigenous languages outside their own indigenous language, culture Media related to People of Nigeria at Wikimedia Commons

2. Nigeria – Its coast in the south lies on the Gulf of Guinea in the Atlantic Ocean. It comprises 36 states and the Federal Capital Territory, where the capital, Nigeria is officially a democratic secular country. Modern-day Nigeria has been the site of numerous kingdoms and tribal states over the millennia, the modern state originated from British colonial rule beginning in the 19th century, and the merging of the Southern Nigeria Protectorate and Northern Nigeria Protectorate in 1914. The British set up administrative and legal structures whilst practising indirect rule through traditional chiefdoms, Nigeria became a formally independent federation in 1960, and plunged into a civil war from 1967 to 1970. Nigeria is often referred to as the Giant of Africa, owing to its large population, with approximately 184 million inhabitants, Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa and the seventh most populous country in the world. Nigeria has one of the largest populations of youth in the world, Nigeria is divided roughly in half between Christians, who live mostly in the southern part of the country, and Muslims in the northern part. A minority of the population practise religions indigenous to Nigeria, such as native to the Igbo. As of 2015, Nigeria is the worlds 20th largest economy, worth more than $500 billion and $1 trillion in terms of nominal GDP and it overtook South Africa to become Africas largest economy in 2014. The 2013 debt-to-GDP ratio was 11 percent, Nigeria is a member of the MINT group of countries, which are widely seen as the globes next BRIC-like economies. It is also listed among the Next Eleven economies set to become among the biggest in the world, Nigeria is a founding member of the African Union and a member of many other international organizations, including the United Nations, the Commonwealth of Nations and OPEC. The name Nigeria was taken from the Niger River running through the country and this name was coined in the late 19th century by British journalist Flora Shaw, who later married Lord Lugard, a British colonial administrator. The origin of the name Niger, which applied only to the middle reaches of the Niger River, is uncertain. The word is likely an alteration of the Tuareg name egerew n-igerewen used by inhabitants along the middle reaches of the river around Timbuktu prior to 19th-century European colonialism. The Nok civilisation of Northern Nigeria flourished between 500 BC and AD200, producing life-sized terracotta figures which are some of the earliest known sculptures in Sub-Saharan Africa, further north, the cities Kano and Katsina have a recorded history dating to around 999 AD. Hausa kingdoms and the Kanem-Bornu Empire prospered as trade posts between North and West Africa, the Kingdom of Nri of the Igbo people consolidated in the 10th century and continued until it lost its sovereignty to the British in 1911. Nri was ruled by the Eze Nri, and the city of Nri is considered to be the foundation of Igbo culture, Nri and Aguleri, where the Igbo creation myth originates, are in the territory of the Umeuri clan. Members of the clan trace their lineages back to the patriarchal king-figure Eri, in West Africa, the oldest bronzes made using the lost-wax process were from Igbo Ukwu, a city under Nri influence. The Yoruba kingdoms of Ife and Oyo in southwestern Nigeria became prominent in the 12th and 14th centuries, the oldest signs of human settlement at Ifes current site date back to the 9th century, and its material culture includes terracotta and bronze figures

3. Sani Abacha – Sani Abacha was a Nigerian Army general and politician who served as the de facto President of Nigeria from 1993 to 1998. A Kanuri from Borno, Abacha was born and brought up in Kano and he attended the Nigerian Military Training College and Mons Officer Cadet School before being commissioned as a 2nd lieutenant in 1963. Abacha was commissioned in 1963 after he had attended Mons Officer Cadet School in Aldershot, before then, he had attended the Nigerian Military Training College in Kaduna. Abachas military career is distinguished by a string of successful coups and he is by some records the most successful coup plotter in the history of Nigerias military. Abacha, then a 2nd Lieutenant with the 3rd Battalion in Kaduna and he may have been a participant in the Lagos or Abeokuta phases of the coup the previous January as well. He was also a prominent figure in the 1983 Nigerian coup détat which brought General Muhammadu Buhari to power in 1983, and the August 1985 coup which removed Buhari from power. When General Ibrahim Babangida was named President and Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces of the Federal Republic of Nigeria in 1985 and he was appointed Minister of Defence in 1990. In 1990, Abacha became the first Nigerian soldier to attain the rank of a full General without skipping a single rank, on 17 November 1993, Abacha overthrew the short-lived transitional government of Chief Ernest Shonekan. In September 1994, he issued a decree that placed his government above the jurisdiction of the courts, another decree gave him the right to detain anyone for up to three months without trial. His regime suffered opposition externally by pro-democracy activists and he however supported the Economic Community of West African States and sent Nigerian troops to Liberia and Sierra Leone to help restore democracy to those countries. Despite being repeatedly condemned by the US State Department, Abacha did have a few ties to American politics, in 1997, Senator James Inhofe travelled to Nigeria to meet with Abacha as a representative of the Family, a group of evangelical Christian politicians and civic leaders. Abacha and the Family had a business and political relationship from that point until his death, Abacha also developed ties with other American political figures such as Senator Carol Moseley Braun, Rev. Jesse Jackson and Minister Louis Farrakhan. Several African American political leaders visited Nigeria during his reign and Farrakhan supported his administration, during Abachas regime, he and his family reportedly stole a total of £5 billion from the countrys coffers. In 2004, Abacha was listed as the fourth most corrupt leader in history, Abachas national security adviser, Alhaji Ismaila Gwarzo, played a central role in the looting and transfer of money to overseas accounts. His son Mohammed Abacha was also involved, a preliminary report published by the Abdulsalam Abubakar transitional government in November 1998 described the process. Sani Abacha told Ismaila Gwarzo to provide fake funding requests, which Abacha approved, the funds were usually sent in cash or travellers cheques by the Central Bank of Nigeria to Gwarzo, who took them to Abachas house. Mohammed Abacha then arranged to launder the money to offshore accounts, an estimated $1.4 billion in cash was delivered in this way. In March 2014, the United States Department of Justice revealed that it had more than $458 million believed to have been illegally obtained by Abacha

4. Moshood Abiola – Chief Moshood Kashimawo Olawale Abiola, CFR, often referred to as M. K. O. Abiola, was a popular Nigerian Yoruba businessman, publisher, politician and aristocrat of the Yoruba Egba clan. He ran for the presidency in 1993, and is regarded as the presumed winner of the inconclusive election since no official final results were announced. His name, Kashimawo, means Let us wait and see, Moshood Abiola was his fathers twenty-third child but the first of his fathers children to survive infancy, hence the name Kashimawo. It was not until he was 15 years old that he was properly named Moshood, MKO showed entrepreneurial talents at a very young age, at the age of nine he started his first business selling firewood. He would wake up at dawn to go to the forest and gather firewood and he later founded a band at age fifteen where he would perform at various ceremonies in exchange for food. He was the editor of the school magazine The Trumpeter, Olusegun Obasanjo was deputy editor, at the age of 19 he joined the National Council of Nigeria and the Cameroons ostensibly because of its stronger pan-Nigerian origin compared with the Obafemi Awolowo-led Action Group. In 1956 Moshood Abiola started his life as a bank clerk with Barclays Bank in Ibadan. After two years, he joined the Western Region Finance Corporation as an executive officer, before leaving for Glasgow, Scotland. From Glasgow University he received a first class degree in accountancy, as a result, Abiola spent a lot of his time in the United States, whilst retaining the post of chairman of the corporations Nigerian subsidiary. In addition to his duties throughout the Middle-East and Africa, Abiola invested heavily in Nigeria, Moshood Abiola sprang to national and international prominence as a result of his philanthropic activities. The children of the world know the great work of this extraordinary leader and his fervent mission to right wrong, to do justice. The enemies which imperil the future of generations to come, poverty, ignorance, disease, hunger, through him and others like him, never again will freedom rest in the domain of the few. We, the members of the Congressional Black Caucus salute him this day as a hero in the pursuit to preserve the history. In this way Abiola reached out and won admiration across the multifarious ethnic, Chief Abiola, personally rallied every African head of state, and every head of state in the black diaspora to ensure that Africans would speak with one voice on the issues. Chief MKO Abiolas memory is celebrated in Nigeria and internationally,12 June remains a public holiday in Lagos and Ogun states. There are also remembrance events arranged across Nigeria, MKO Abiola was known for his charisma and for being a man of the people. As a prominent social activist, democratic freedom fighter, and successful business figure, MKO Abiola Stadium and Moshood Abiola Polytechnic were named in his honour. There were also calls for posthumous presidential recognition, a statue, MKO Abiola Statue was also erected in his honour

5. Abdulsalami Abubakar – Alhaji, Abdulsalam Abubakar pronunciation ahb-doo-sah-LAM-ee ah-boo-BAH-kahr is a retired Nigerian Army General who was military President of Nigeria from 9 June 1998 until 29 May 1999. He succeeded Sani Abacha upon Abachas death and it was during Abubakars leadership that Nigeria adopted its new constitution on 5 May 1999, which provided for multiparty elections. Abubakar transferred power to president-elect Olusegun Obasanjo on 29 May 1999, Abdulsalami Alhaji Abubakar hails from the Hausa ethnic group and was born on 13 June 1942 in Minna, Niger State. He was educated at Native Authority Primary School in that city, the Provincial Secondary School in Bida, after this, he joined the military. Abubakar led Nigerias contingent in the United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon and his wifes name is Fati and they have six children. Nigeria had been ruled by military leaders since Muhammadu Buhari seized power from Shehu Shagari in a 1983 coup, although democratic elections had been held in 1993, they were annulled by General Ibrahim Babangida. Reported to have had a reluctance to accepting the position. He declared a period of national mourning. A few days after assuming office, Abubakar promised to hold elections within a year and he established the Independent National Electoral Commission, appointing former Supreme Court Justice Ephraim Akpata as chairman. The INEC held a series of elections first for Local Government Areas in December 1998, then for State Assemblies and Governors, National Assemblies, although efforts were made to ensure that the elections were free and fair, there were widespread irregularities that drew criticism from foreign observers. Surprising some critics of the military, Abubakar kept his word. During his administration Nigeria adopted a new constitution May 5,1999, in 2000, former United Nations Secretary-General Kofi Annan appointed him to try to shore up the UN Mission to the Congo-Kinshasa. A lecture circuit at Chicago State University in Chicago, Illinois, United States featuring him encountered opposition, Abubakar helped in the Liberian peace movement by presiding over the 2003 peace talks between Charles Taylor and the opposing rebels. This is seen in the movie Pray the Devil Back to Hell, publisher, Federal Ministry of Information and Culture. ASIN, B0006FDZZG Nigerian Third Republic Nigerian Fourth Republic Abdulsalami Abubakar – Famous Nigerians and personalities – OnlineNigeria. com

6. Atiku Abubakar – Abubakar worked in the Nigeria Customs Service for twenty years, rising to become the Deputy Director, as the second highest position in the Service was then known. He retired in April 1989 and took up business and politics. He ran for the office of Governor in the Gongola State in 1991, in 1998 he was elected Governor of Adamawa State. While still Governor-Elect he was selected by the Peoples Democratic Party Presidential candidate Olusegun Obasanjo as his running mate, the duo went on to win elections in February 1999, and Abubakar was sworn-in as Nigerias second democratically elected Vice President on 29 May 1999. Abubakars second term as Vice President was marked by a relationship with President Obasanjo. The Supreme Court decisiordered the electoral commission to restore Abubakars name onto the presidential ballot, Abubakar ran on the platform of the Action Congress, having quit the PDP on account of his issues with President Obasanjo. Atiku lost the election, placing third after Umaru YarAdua and Muhammadu Buhari of the All Nigeria Peoples Party, Atiku is a co-founder of Intels, an oil servicing business with extensive operations in Nigeria and abroad. He is also the founder of Adama Beverages Limited, and the American University of Nigeria, both in Yola. Atiku Abubakar was born to an itinerant Fulani trader and farmer Garba Abubakar and he was named for his paternal grandfather, Atiku Abdulkadir. An older sister died in infancy, making Atiku the only child of his parents who divorced before his fathers death by drowning in 1957, Atikus early years were spent in Kojoli,30 kilometres east of Jada. She died of an attack in 1984. Like many of his generation, Atikus father was opposed to the idea of Western education, when the government discovered that Atiku was not attending mandatory schooling his father spent a few days in jail until Aisha Kandes mother paid the fine. At the age of eight Atiku enrolled in the Jada Primary School where he performed well, in 1960, he was admitted to the prestigious Adamawa Provincial Secondary School in Yola where he did well in English Language and Literature, struggled with Physics and Chemistry and Mathematics. He graduated with a Grade Three WASC/GCE Certificate in 1965, following secondary school, Atiku studied a short while at the Nigeria Police College in Kaduna. He left the College when he was unable to present an O-Level Mathematics result and he worked briefly as a Tax Officer in the regional Ministry of Finance, from where he gained admission to the School of Hygiene in Kano in 1966. He graduated with a Diploma in 1967, having served as Interim Student Union President at the School, in 1967 he enrolled for a Law Diploma at the Ahmadu Bello University Institute of Administration, on a scholarship from regional government. After graduation in 1969, during the Nigerian Civil War, he was employed by the Nigeria Customs Service, while at Idi-Iroko Atiku met nineteen-year-old Titilayo Albert, who he secretly married in December 1971, in Lagos, because her family was initially opposed to the union. On 26 October 1972, Titilayo delivered a girl they named Fatima

7. Johnson Aguiyi-Ironsi – Major General Johnson Thomas Umunnakwe Aguiyi-Ironsi was a senior Nigerian military officer and second Nigerian Head of State. Thomas Umunnakwe Aguiyi-Ironsi was born to Mazi Ezeugo Aguiyis on 3 March 1924, in Umuahia-Ibeku, present-day Abia State, when he was eight years old, Ironsi moved in with his older sister Anyamma, who was married to Theophilius Johnson, a Sierra Leonean diplomat in Umuahia. Ironsi subsequently took the last name of his brother-in-law, who became his father figure, at the age of 18, Ironsi joined the Nigerian Army against the wishes of his sister. During the Congo Crisis of the 1960s, the United Nations Secretary-General, Dag Hammarskjöld, Lieutenant Colonel Ironsi led the 5th battalion to the Kivu and Leopoldville provinces of Congo. His unit proved integral to the effort, and he was soon appointed the Force Commander of the United Nations Operation in the Congo. In 1960 he led the Nigerian contingent in Congo, there he single-handedly negotiated the release of Austrian medical personnel and Nigerian troops when they were ambushed by Katangese rebels. For this he was awarded the 1st class Ritter-Kreuz Award and he also single-handedly confronted an angry mob in Leopoldville, disbanding them. This and many other exploits earned him the name Johnny Ironside, Ironsi returned from Congo in 1964 during the post-independence Nigerianization of the countrys institutions of government. It was decided that the British General Officer Commanding of the Nigerian Army, Major General Welby-Everard, Ironsi led the pack of candidates jostling for the coveted position. This and other factors effectively led to the Fall of the Republican Government. Though Ironsi, an Igbo, was slated for assassination, he effectively took control of Lagos. Ironsi inherited a Nigeria deeply fractured by its ethnic and religious cleavages, 34—which abrogated the countrys federal structure in exchange for a unitary one— crystallized this conspiracy theory. During his short regime Aguiyi-Ironsi promulgated a raft of decrees, among them were the Constitution Suspension and Amendment Decree No.1, which suspended most articles of the Constitution. The Circulation of Newspaper Decree No.2 which removed the restrictions on press freedom put in place by the civilian administration. According to Ndayo Uko, the Decree no.2 was to serve as a gesture to the press. He also as per the proposals of a single man committee passed the controversial Unification Decree No.34 aimed to unify Nigeria into a unitary state, on 29 July 1966 Ironsi spent the night at the Government House, Ibadan, as part of a nationwide tour. His host, Lieutenant Colonel Adekunle Fajuyi, Military Governor of Western Nigeria, Ironsi desperately tried to contact his Army Chief of Staff, Yakubu Gowon, but he was unreachable. In the early hours of the morning, the Government House, Danjuma arrested Ironsi and questioned him about his alleged complicity in the coup, which saw the demise of the Sardauna of Sokoto, Ahmadu Bello. The circumstances leading to Ironsis death still remain a subject of controversy in Nigeria

8. Samuel Akintola – Samuel Ládòkè Akíntọ́lá or S. L. A. was a Nigerian politician, lawyer, aristocrat and orator who was born in Ogbomosho, of the then Western Region. In addition to serving as one of the fathers of modern Nigeria. Akintola was born in Ogbomosho to the family of Akintola Akinbola and Akanke, his father was a trader, at a young age, the family moved to Minna and he was briefly educated at a Church Missionary Society school in the city. In 1922, he returned to Ogbomosho to live with his grandfather and he taught at the Baptist Academy from 1930 to 1942 and thereafter worked briefly with the Nigerian Railway Corporation. During this period, he acquainted with H. O. He joined the staff of the Daily Service Newspaper and soon became the editor in 1943 with the support of Akinola Maja, Akintola was also founder of Iroyin Yoruba, a newspaper written in the Yoruba language. In 1945, he opposed the strike led by Azikiwes NCNC and Michael Imoudu. In 1946, he earned a British scholarship to study in the U. K. and he started his legal career working as a lawyer on land and civic matters. In 1952, he formed a partnership with Chris Ogunbanjo, Chief Bode Thomas and he initially was the legal adviser of the group before becoming the deputy leader in 1953 after the death of Bode Thomas. He defeated Arthur Prest in the primary to succeed Bode Thomas, at the federal level he served as Minister for Health and later Minister for Communications and Aviation. Akintola disagreed with Awolowos decision not to join the coalition government and he also opposed the partys decision to adopt democratic socialism as its ideology, preferring a more conservative stance. Akintola was accused by Chief Awolowo for trying to supplant him as Leader of the party. A Majekodunmi, eventually Akintola was restored to power as Premier in 1963. Akintola was assassinated in Ibadan, the capital of Western Region, on the day of Nigerias first military coup of 15 January 1966—which terminated the First Republic. This was the Young Majors Coup or the coup of the January boys, Akintola was dignified orator and was responsible for completing the founding of University of Ife in 1962 while still a premier in Western Region. He was also involved in development of Premier Hotel and other monuments, Akintola was married to Chief Faderera Akintola and had five children, two of whom were later to become finance ministers in the Nigerian Third Republic. Chief Yomi Akintola also served as Nigerias Ambassador to Hungary and Samuel Akinolas daughter-in-law and his fourth child, Chief Victor Ladipo Akintola, dedicated much of his life to ensuring the continued accurate accounting of Samuel Akintolas contributions to Nigerias position on the world stage. He published many works including a biography that highlighted his fathers love of his country and his youngest child, Tokunbo Akintola was the first black boy at Eton college and features prominently in the best selling book by Dilibe Onyeama, Nigger at Eton. Jacob Odulate Samuel Ladoke Akintola and History Liste der Regierungschefs der Regionen Nigerias

9. Obafemi Awolowo – Chief Obafemi Jeremiah Oyeniyi Awolowo, GCFR, was a Nigerian nationalist and statesman who played a key role in Nigerias independence movement, the First and Second Republics and the Civil War. He was the first premier of the Western Region and later federal commissioner for finance and he was thrice a major contender for his countrys highest office. Awolowo was responsible for much of the social legislation that has made Nigeria a modern nation. He was the first Leader of Government Business and Minister of Local Government and Finance and he was the official Leader of the Opposition in the federal parliament to the Balewa government from 1959 to 1963. His father was a farmer and sawyer who died when Obafemi was about seven years old and he attended various schools, including Baptist Boys High School, Abeokuta, and then became a teacher in Abeokuta, after which he qualified as a shorthand typist. Subsequently, he served as a clerk at the famous Wesley college and it was after this that he embarked on various business ventures to help raise funds to travel to the UK for further studies. Following his education at Wesley College, Ibadan, in 1927, he enrolled at the University of London as an External Student and graduated with the degree of Bachelor of Commerce. He went to the UK in 1944 to study law at the University of London and was called to the Bar by the Honourable Society of the Inner Temple on 19 November 1946. In 1949 Awolowo founded the Nigerian Tribune, the oldest surviving private Nigerian newspaper, as premier, he proved to be and was viewed as a man of vision and a dynamic administrator. Awolowo was also the leading social democratic politician. He supported limited public ownership and limited central planning in government and he believed that the state should channel Nigerias resources into education and state-led infrastructural development. From the eve of independence, he led the Action Group as the Leader of the Opposition in the federal parliament, serious disagreements between Awolowo and Akintola on how to run the Western region led the latter to an alliance with the Tafawa Balewa-led NPC federal government. A constitutional crisis led to the declaration of a state of emergency in the Western Region, eventually resulting in a breakdown of law. Excluded from national government, Awolowo and his party faced a precarious position. Akintolas followers, angered at their exclusion from power, formed the Nigerian National Democratic Party under Akintolas leadership, having previously suspended the elected Western Regional Assembly, the federal government then reconstituted the body after manoeuvres that brought Akintolas NNDP into power without an election. Shortly afterwards Awolowo and several disciples were arrested, charged, convicted, the Foundation was launched by the President of Nigeria at that time, General Ibrahim Babangida, at the Liberty Stadium, Ibadan. Awolowo died peacefully at his Ikenne home, the Efunyela Hall, on 9 May 1987, at the age of 78 and was laid to rest in Ikenne, amid tributes across political and ethno-religious divides

10. Nnamdi Azikiwe – Benjamin Nnamdi Azikiwe, P. C. usually referred to as Nnamdi Azikiwe or Zik, was one of the leading figures of modern Nigerian nationalism. He served as the second and last Governor-General of Nigeria from 1960 to 1963, born in Zungeru, in present-day Niger State, Azikiwe learned to speak Hausa, the main indigenous language of the Northern Region at an early age. He later lived in Onitsha, his homeland where he was raised by his aunt and grandmother. A sojourn in Lagos exposed him to the Yoruba language and he was in college, in British West Africa, Azikiwe was an important advocate of Nigerian and African nationalism, first as a journalist and later as political leader. Azikiwe was born on 16 November 1904, in Zungeru, Northern Nigeria, Nnamdi means My father is alive in the Igbo language. His parents were Igbo, his father Obed-Edom Chukwuemeka Azikiwe, an Onitsha-indigene, Ziks mother was Rachel Chinwe Azikiwe sometimes called Nwanonaku whose family was descended from a royal house in Onitsha, her paternal great grandfather was Obi Anazenwu. Azikiwe had one sibling, a sister named Cecilia Eziamaka Arinze, in Onitsha, he attended Holy Trinity School, a Roman Catholic Mission school and then Christ Church School, an Anglican primary school. In 1914, his father was working in Lagos and when Azikiwe was bitten by a dog, his father worried about Ziks health asked him to come to Lagos so as to heal and also attend school in the city. Two years later, his father was posted out of Lagos to Kaduna and he was back in Onitsha by 1918 and finished his elementary education at CMS Central School where he also served as a pupil-teacher supporting his mother with some of his earnings. In 1920, his father was posted back to Southern Nigeria in the Southeastern city of Calabar, Zik joined his father in Calabar and started his secondary school at Hope Waddell Training College. In Calabar, he was introduced to the teachings of Marcus Garvey, after Hope Waddell, Calabar, Azikwe transferred to Methodist Boys High School Lagos. There he was friends with classmates from old Lagos families such as George Shyngle, Francis Cole and Ade Williams, while at Methodist, he listened to a lecture delivered by James Aggrey, an educationist who believed that nothing but the best was good for Africa. Aggrey also believed Africans should get collegiate education abroad and come home to effect change, after the lecture, Aggrey gave the young Zik a list of schools accepting black students in America. After completing his education, Zik applied to the colonial service and was accepted as a clerk in the treasury department. His entry to colonial service also made him face the racial bias within the colnial government, to reach America, he contacted a seaman and made a deal with him to become a stowaway. However, one of his friends on the ship fell sick, in Ghana Zik got employment as a police officer. While working in Ghana, his mother visited him and asked him to return to Nigeria, in U. S he took to doing various odd jobs to support his tuition and living expenses. He initially struggled working without a sponsorship and also feeling lonesome and depressed

11. President of Nigeria

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